GRINDING MILLS, BINDING ROADS –

Hungarian-SerbiauHu cross-border thematic route under the sign of mills and windmills

 

MILLS’ ROUTE

 

Project number: HUSRB/1602/31/0252

 

Lead Beneficiary : Kiskun Museum of Municipality of Kiskunfélegyháza

 

Project Partners:

  • ONTE Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park
  • Municipality of Hódmezővásárhely
  • Local Community Orom (Mesna Zajednica Orom)
  • National Museum of Kikinda (Narodni muzej Kikinda)

 

TOTAL project budget:      514 852,14 Eur

EU contribution:                  437 624,31 Eur

 

Project start date: 1st March 2018

Project end date: 29th February 2020

 

MILLS’ ROUTE

 

The typical mill types in the Southern Great Plain are dry and windmills, which have been traditional milling structures in the landscape for centuries. The geographical reason for this is that this area is poor in watercourses and is, therefore, largely unsuitable for the construction of water mills. Dry mills were probably already used in the Middle Ages in this region, but the Ottoman conquest depopulated the area, thus hindering the continuous development of the local mill architecture. From the 18th century onwards, the number of dry mills increased with the repopulation, and from the end of the century windmills also appeared.

 

A dry mill is essentially a machine powered by animal or human power. Based on written sources, dry mills definitely existed in the 16th and 17th centuries in this region. There was a common type of mill in the whole of the Great Plain, a mid-drift dry mill type, also called “of the Great Plain”. The most spectacular part of these mills is the large round ²apron² or ²tent², which was covered with shingles, thatch or tile roofing. The conical roof is supported either by wooden pillars dug in the ground or brick feet. In this large circular space, the horizontal gear wheel was rotated which was joined to a large central axle called the upright shaft. The livestock for propulsion was tethered among the spokes of this large wheel, hence the name mid-drift. The mill-house was integrated with the tent where the millstone or millstones were located.

 

Windmills in Europe are mills equipped with vertical sail planes. A typical feature of this type is that the energy absorbed by the sails on the near horizontal axle is transmitted to a vertical axle by a transmission that transmits the drive to the device that ensures the rotation of the millstones.

 

In Europe, post and tower mills are widespread. The tower mill was built with a solid masonry roundhouse, where only the cap and the sails on the roof had to be turned in the wind direction, not the whole structure. This solid roundhouse is usually circular in shape, with the masonry either straight or tapering upwards. In terms of material they are mostly stone or brick, but they are also made of adobe in the Great Plain. At the top level, the gear that always turns the horizontal rotational energy into a vertical one is located in the rotatable roof structure. The next level was usually transmission gears. Below this was the grinding level or stone floor with the millstones, and the lowest level, which was usually the ground floor, was where the meal arrived, which was also stored here, and if there were sieves, they also worked here. Based on their structural differences, two types are distinguished, the underdrift and the overdrift.

 

Underdrift windmills are smaller buildings. According to our current knowledge, they are most widespread in the Great Plain, they are mostly made of adobe. Their name derives from the position of the horizontally rotating gear wheel to the millstones, which gives the rotational power to the stones. The stones are on the first floor, so the nuts or spindles drive the runner stone from below, which is why it is called underdrift.

 

Overdrift windmills are four-floor windmills; they could be made of adobe or bricks. This type works according to the principles above, but here the great spur wheel is located above the level of the stones – the stone floor – which drives the upper runner millstone from above, so it is the overdrift type. The main axle only reaches the third level from above, and has a horizontal wheel that drives the stones, the so-called wallower. The first floor is the stone floor, the milling is done here, the millstones are located here and were surrounded by wood bark. The ground floor was called the meal floor, the finished meal arrived here. The second floor is the bin floor, and here there are only devices for transmitting rotational energy. On the third level, the dust floor, the almost horizontal rotational energy absorbed by the sails is transformed into a vertical one.

 

In Hungary, in the Great Hungarian Plain, the former tower windmills were underdrift, clearly driven from beneath, later the ovedrift ones became widespread, in which sieves could be installed, so mill owners could compete with the steam mills.

Millwrights built both dry and windmills. Their professional knowledge was not limited to mill construction, they provided the windmills and dry mills with their artistic carvings, which made the windmills of the Great Hungarian Plain unique grinding machines that still promote the craftsmanship of the Kiskun millwrights and millers.


GRINDING MILLS, BINDING ROADS –

Hungarian-SerbiauHu cross-border thematic route under the sign of mills and windmills

 

MILLS’ ROUTE

 

Project number: HUSRB/1602/31/0252

 

Lead Beneficiary : Kiskun Museum of Municipality of Kiskunfélegyháza

 

Project Partners:

  • ONTE Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park
  • Municipality of Hódmezővásárhely
  • Local Community Orom (Mesna Zajednica Orom)
  • National Museum of Kikinda (Narodni muzej Kikinda)

 

TOTAL project budget:      514 852,14 Eur

EU contribution:                  437 624,31 Eur

 

Project start date: 1st March 2018

Project end date: 29th February 2020

 

MILLS’ ROUTE

 

The typical mill types in the Southern Great Plain are dry and windmills, which have been traditional milling structures in the landscape for centuries. The geographical reason for this is that this area is poor in watercourses and is, therefore, largely unsuitable for the construction of water mills. Dry mills were probably already used in the Middle Ages in this region, but the Ottoman conquest depopulated the area, thus hindering the continuous development of the local mill architecture. From the 18th century onwards, the number of dry mills increased with the repopulation, and from the end of the century windmills also appeared.

 

A dry mill is essentially a machine powered by animal or human power. Based on written sources, dry mills definitely existed in the 16th and 17th centuries in this region. There was a common type of mill in the whole of the Great Plain, a mid-drift dry mill type, also called “of the Great Plain”. The most spectacular part of these mills is the large round ²apron² or ²tent², which was covered with shingles, thatch or tile roofing. The conical roof is supported either by wooden pillars dug in the ground or brick feet. In this large circular space, the horizontal gear wheel was rotated which was joined to a large central axle called the upright shaft. The livestock for propulsion was tethered among the spokes of this large wheel, hence the name mid-drift. The mill-house was integrated with the tent where the millstone or millstones were located.

 

Windmills in Europe are mills equipped with vertical sail planes. A typical feature of this type is that the energy absorbed by the sails on the near horizontal axle is transmitted to a vertical axle by a transmission that transmits the drive to the device that ensures the rotation of the millstones.

 

In Europe, post and tower mills are widespread. The tower mill was built with a solid masonry roundhouse, where only the cap and the sails on the roof had to be turned in the wind direction, not the whole structure. This solid roundhouse is usually circular in shape, with the masonry either straight or tapering upwards. In terms of material they are mostly stone or brick, but they are also made of adobe in the Great Plain. At the top level, the gear that always turns the horizontal rotational energy into a vertical one is located in the rotatable roof structure. The next level was usually transmission gears. Below this was the grinding level or stone floor with the millstones, and the lowest level, which was usually the ground floor, was where the meal arrived, which was also stored here, and if there were sieves, they also worked here. Based on their structural differences, two types are distinguished, the underdrift and the overdrift.

 

Underdrift windmills are smaller buildings. According to our current knowledge, they are most widespread in the Great Plain, they are mostly made of adobe. Their name derives from the position of the horizontally rotating gear wheel to the millstones, which gives the rotational power to the stones. The stones are on the first floor, so the nuts or spindles drive the runner stone from below, which is why it is called underdrift.

 

Overdrift windmills are four-floor windmills; they could be made of adobe or bricks. This type works according to the principles above, but here the great spur wheel is located above the level of the stones – the stone floor – which drives the upper runner millstone from above, so it is the overdrift type. The main axle only reaches the third level from above, and has a horizontal wheel that drives the stones, the so-called wallower. The first floor is the stone floor, the milling is done here, the millstones are located here and were surrounded by wood bark. The ground floor was called the meal floor, the finished meal arrived here. The second floor is the bin floor, and here there are only devices for transmitting rotational energy. On the third level, the dust floor, the almost horizontal rotational energy absorbed by the sails is transformed into a vertical one.

 

In Hungary, in the Great Hungarian Plain, the former tower windmills were underdrift, clearly driven from beneath, later the ovedrift ones became widespread, in which sieves could be installed, so mill owners could compete with the steam mills.

Millwrights built both dry and windmills. Their professional knowledge was not limited to mill construction, they provided the windmills and dry mills with their artistic carvings, which made the windmills of the Great Hungarian Plain unique grinding machines that still promote the craftsmanship of the Kiskun millwrights and millers.